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APA Citation Style 6th Edition: E. Secondary Sources

LibGuide Content Provided by Red Deer College Library - Permission of use received under the Creative Commons License.

About Citing

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) -entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.  For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue.

In-Text Citation (Quotation) -entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.

References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from theAPA Manual (6th ed.).

Secondary Sources (p. 178)

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report.

In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References.

The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

General Format
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read],
Year, page number)

References:
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial [of the source you read]. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

NOTE: If you were using an indirect source from an article, refer to the journals section of this guide.

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested.

References:
Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).
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