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Turabian Citation Style Guide: Personal Communications and Interviews

Content Provided courtesy of the Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA

Personal Communications and Interviews

Published or broadcast interviews

An interview that has already been published or broadcast is treated like an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. Interviews consulted online should include a URL or similar identifier and, for audiovisual materials, an indication of the medium.

N:  117. “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao),” by Matt Okie,, September 2, 2008,

    118. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, February 7, 1990.

    119. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, April 22, 2007,

Bellour, Raymond. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.

*Internet message board (newsgroup, online forum, discussion group), electronic mailing list, or blog post. Usually cited only in a note, but may include citation in the bibliography if reference is critical to your argument or frequently cited.

Example: Military Message Traffic:

N:  1 John Smith, comment on “Carrier Strike Group 12 Incident,” Navy Knowledge Online Message Boards, comment posted March 10, 2009, (accessed March 1, 2010).


N: = Note

B: = Biblography

P: = In-text citations which are enclosed in parentheses.

R: = Reference List


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